HYPO AND HYPERTHYROIDISM
- Oral replacement of thyroxin is the main stay of management.
- Replacement therapy should be taken regularly and most of the time has to be continued for life long.
- Diet comprising of low calorie, adequate protein, fats, minerals and vitamins should be given.
- In hypothyroidism the basal metabolic rate is low so the calorie should be reduced to 30 -40% of normal requirement.
- Protein should be adequate to meet normal requirement.
- Fats should consist mainly from vegetables oil, which are rich in essential fatty acids. It should not exceed more than 30 grams per day.
- Vitamins and minerals should be just adequate to meet the daily needs. But the sodium chloride as common salt should be kept at the minimum and avoid salted confectioneries, chips and pickles.
- In case of endemic goiter supplementations is required.
- Hyperthyroidism is treated with radioactive iodine, anti-thyroid drugs or surgery.
- A liberal diet proving adequate amount of calories , proteins , vitamins and minerals is indicated patients has severe malnutrition since the basal metabolic rate is increased thus the calorie requirement are also increased 4000-500kcal will be allowed .
- Protein requirement is also increased to 50% more than the actual requirement which is about 120 – 130 gm. per day .This should come mainly from good quality protein egg, meat, poultry and cereal and pulses combination.
- A diet rich in vitamin A, B complex, C should be increase to twice the daily requirements.
- Pulses and wheat sprouts combination will enhance the B complex and vitamin C.
- Carotene rich foods like papaya, mango, and fenugreek leaves will ensure the Vitamin A supplement.
- Carotene will be converted to vitamin A in the body.
- Calcium and phosphorous excretion is greatly increased in the urine, so liberal calcium and phosphorus rich food like milk, milk products, dark green leafy veggie, and ragi must be put in every day diet.
- Ragi and milk preparation is excellent source of calcium and phosphorous.
- Fish is also good source of calcium. Small fishes eaten with the bone are very good sources.
- A person suffering from hyperthyroidism, by limiting smoking, alcohol and caffeine found in tea, coffee, cola and chocolate reduced symptoms as they all can raise the metabolic rate.